Radicalism and Women’s Role in Creating Peace

(Public consultation note on the National Action Plan of Counter Extremism conducted by Wahid Foundation and UN Women)

In various works and cultural literature, women are always portrayed as a person who represents gentleness, love and affection. Women in many works of literature are also often characterized by flowers and moon. In the heroic saga and appearance of masculinity is often also told how the power can be falls and be defeated by the seduction of wilt and softness of beautiful women. Disputes and wars between the empires in the past were often caused solely by the enchantment of women. Corruption in France during the 16th Louis era was caused by a woman who scatter to splash money that boils down to the blade of gouletin. The history of the ancient kingdom in europe, asia and even the history of Ken Arok in Indonesia is also not separated by the influence of women. The fact is the tenderness, love and stories of heroism dominated by many women.

Women and violence

It is ironic and out of topic if we try to associate the crime and the ferocity committed by  the gentle creature that we call woman. As if it is contradicted with the norms that are generally applicable for example there were cases of rape committed by women to the men. Or a woman become terrorists. But it is reality all the time. What it is a very common when we hear the news of the women becomes the object of violence. Women that we always positioned as a weak creature and physically weak figure reacted to take revenge, suddenly changed in the position and condition as the perpetrator of crime. Because in the case of street crime for example often and common when we hear there is a woman got snatched or robbed by a male perpetrator. Although we can say physically, for example, the criminal is small and skinny. Usually women only as a victim and subject or parties that is the most disadvantaged.

Women are the most frightened and experienced a long psychotraumatic. Instead of taking revenge and resistance. Usually women can only cry. That is the general image of women and criminal. But on the other extreme – men sometimes forget that in some cases once, It is unusual and not much happening, women are subjected to violent and brutal violent perpetrators, beyond men. History has also noted how a German woman Cecelina Magdalena Kopp was listed as a bomb expert, skilled hijack and expert on assassinations from Frankfurt Revolutionary Cell-Rz. A woman from the Popular Front For Liberation of Palestine PFLP. Muriel Dequeque is a Belgian convert who had committed suicide in Iraq. In England there was Patria Hears the grand daughter of English media king William Randolph Hears who had also previously been kidnapped by the Symbionase Federation Army. In the 70s there was Rose Dulgate who led the uprising in England and Urike Meinhof founder of Red Army Fraction – RAF. There was also in Japan Fusako Shigenobu the founder of Japanese Ref Army JRA who was able to attack Tel Aviv Airport, which was recruited by Popular Front for Liberation of Palestine PFLP which also apparently affiliated with Alqaedah as well as in Indonesia he was in action of terror against four foreign representatives by Tsutomo Shirosaki in May 14, 1986.

There was also the phenomenal case of Laela Khaled who hijacked the Trans World Airline TWA 840 route Rome Tel Aviv in 1969. The case of Chechen’s widow’s revenge for returning the good name of the husband known as the black widow. There were even women who dare to attack Somalia Mombasa Police Headquarters associated with Jaylish Al Ayman affiliated with Al – Shabab. May be we still remember the case of coffee poison committed by Jesica Iskandar in a criminal murder case, Or how the case of terrorism also involves Indonesian women like Dian Yulia Novi who was arrested by the end of 2016 which she planned to kill herself in the Presidential Palace. Or Ika Puspita Sari also known as Salsabila who was arrested in Purworejo, And Jumiatun muslim also known as Atun or Umi Delima in the case of Mujahidin Indonesia MIT Santoso.

All such cases seem to erode the notion, classical theory and dogma that violent crime is predominantly male. Various reasons that can be used as a backstop causality of cases of violent women. Starting from the influence of indoctrination propaganda and agitation, there was also revenge, and loyalty to their community. The ideological patron implanted by the teacher to the student. Obedient and submissive and believe in the truth of the words of a certain character, or there was also a result of entering into an exclusive group on a particular idiom entity. Despite the crime, sadism is predominantly male. Looking at the facts described above, the woman in various cases turned out to be more extreme than the crimes committed by men.

Paradoxical role of women and violence.

In parallel with some violence committed by the women that occurred in the past and the last was in Indonesia, the authors note there are some local activities done by women. In Germany there was a social activity led by women named SAVE, which stands for Sister Against Violent Extremism directed by Dr. Edit Schlatter. The concept is the *”mother school”* in Austria and some Scandinavian countries were more popular with *”mother school without borders”*. There was also the initiation of female actors called KUPI stand for Kongres Ulama Perempuan Indonesia (Indonesian Muslim Mufti Congress) held on 25 April 2017 in Cirebon Indonesia. There was a Nigerian woman named Rafatu Abdul Hamid stressed how many women have become victims of violence and experienced prolonged terror due to the abduction of 200 girls who were forced into Islam, raped and married by Boko Haram Militan.

There was also Ulfat Hussein Masibo an ustazah from Kenya who was eager to voice that every Muslim should strengthen their family structure and education. And once upon a time on 30 January 2018 the Regional and Multilateral Directorate of National Counter Terrorism Agency in collaboration with UN Women and Wahid Foundation, conducted consultations and dialogue of women in order to formulate a National Action Plan on combating violent extremism leading to terrorism in Mandarin Hotels in Jakarta Indonesia.

On the occasion of the consultation was revealed that the participation of civil society including women in the preparation of the national action plan of countering extremism is very important to foster a sense of ownership on the policy of overcoming the extremism. For realizing or not the facts show that violent extremism-based violence or violent extremism is the entrance for crime of terrorism. The experts even say that violent extremism can not be faced with a mere security approach. A comprehensive approach should be forced in tackling extremism.

To develop a comprehensive concept there are several pillars that need to be worked on such as; pillar of prevention covering counter-radicalization and protection preparedness, pillars of de-radicalization, pillars of law enforcement and pillars of partnership and international cooperation. In various meetings, discussions and dialogue above almost 80% of activities conducted by women. This means that prevention functions undertaken by community and personal women have a significant role to prevent extremism. The effectiveness of women in reducing extremism and radicalism. The author thinks that we are all concerned that talking about negotiation and the ability to influence people more effective is negotiation done by women than is done by men. Women in addition to be more resilient are also known to be courageous in conveying their will and opinion. The attractiveness (especially for men) certainly in women is much greater. Bargaining, buying time, patient to determines the alternatives are a few things that are  owned by woman. In the case of the person being held hostage there could be a negative positive response situation between the victims which is known as stockholm syndrome

In developed countries many women are placed as their negotiator team. On the side we should not forget that professionally women can do a good undercover to enter in a community and difficult situation. In the case of espionage in the era of world war I and II woman used as tool for infiltration. And they can do it successfully. Seeing the role of women who are not small in countering extremism that leads to radicalism and terrorism then there are some thoughts.

First; The national action plan should be implemented soon with effective support of women’s social elements.

Second; UN Women, Wahid Foundation, FKPT ( Forum Komunikasi Penanggulangan Terorisme or Communication Forum of Counter Terrorism) and existing NGOs should work together to maximize the role of education as done by women school and mother school without borders.

Third; appeals to women NGOs to mobilize all mothers themselves to provide a true religious education away from the radical ideology leading to terrorism.

Fourth; moving women’s NGOs to return the child’s game pattern to conventional game patterns slowly, for examples in Indonesia; flying kite and spin.

Fifth ; initiate Indonesian women to give more affection to their children.